The evaluation of ionizing radiation doses for people occupationally exposed to radiological diagnostics

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Lucyna Kasprzyk, Mieczysława U. Jurczyk

2 (43) 2015 s. 106–111
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Fraza do cytowania: Kasprzyk L., Jurczyk M.U. The evaluation of ionizing radiation doses for people occupationally exposed to radiological diagnostics. Polski Przegląd Nauk o Zdrowiu. 2015;2(43):106–111.

Since the discovery of X radiation by Wilhelm Roentgen, development in the field of radiological diagnostics has been observed over the last one hundred years. The danger connected with its application is constantly subjected to testing, and the results from it lead to new solutions, which are being introduced in work environment in contact with ionizing radiation. In the below manuscript, a short characteristic of physical quantities used in dosimetry is presented. They serve for determination of the absorbed dose (portion) of radiation, for people occupationally exposed in the medical environment. Types of ionizing radiation doses and the methods for their determination are described. Two categories of occupational exposure are presented: A and B. Classification of the worker to one of the groups is dependent on the amount of calculated dose of radiation on the human body. Introduction of the definition of dose limit, enabled legal regulation of procedures in case when the upper limit of the dose was exceeded. Moreover the influence of the ionizing radiation on human body in a controlled working environment is discussed. Existance of two different theories on the radiation’s influence on human health, lead to that results gained from the observations and research are ambiguous. The probability of occupational disease occurrence depending on the amount of absorbed radiation dose, which may be related to work in ionizing radation, is demonstrated. The frequency of occupational disease in the last decade, working in diagnostic radiology is shown. The basic rule applied in radiation protection is ALARA rule, according to which the legal guidelines must be obeyed, which regulate work in enviornment potentially having harmful effect on health. Otherwise non‑complaince may lead to body injury. The equipment used in diagnostic radiology is being rapidly modernized and is of higher quality with time. Therefore the application of equipment of new generation provides safety to personnel exposed to ionizing radiation. However improvement in the quality of performed dosimetric parameters is still the aim, as well as in work environments and concerning individual workers.

Key words: occupational exposure, the dose of radiation, diagnostic radiology, occupational exposure to radiation.

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