Vitamin D deficiency and its consequences

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Anna Otlewska, Paweł Hackemer, Fryderyk Menzel, Aleksandra Drabik

1 (54) 2018 s. 118–122
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Fraza do cytowania: Otlewska A., Hackemer P., Menzel F., Drabik A. Vitamin D deficiency and its consequences. Polski Przegląd Nauk o Zdrowiu. 2018;1(54):118–122. DOI:

Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread phenomenon in Poland, affecting both the adult population and children. Vitamin D comes predominantly from the synthesis of UVB rays, and is less likely to be supplied to the body with food. Common risk factors for developing deficiency include: insufficient UVB exposure due to inhabiting areas located at high latitudes, using filtered creams, or older age. Influence on the risk of vitamin D deficiencies include various medical conditions such as: absorption disorders, severe liver and kidney disease, and taking certain medications. It has long been known the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on the skeletal system and the risk of developing osteomalacia and rickets. Numerous studies are currently underway to analyze the potential effects of vitamin D on the risk of developing other diseases. It has been shown that acting as a transcription factor affects the expression of several hundred genes. A number of scientific papers have been produced proving the effects of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease, cancer, autoimmune diseases. New directions for research are the search for the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and other illnesses such as: occurrence of digestive system diseases, development of infections or psychiatric disorders. In Poland, vitamin D supplementation is recommended for all people from September to April. The basic dose is 800 to 2000 IU per day. Other doses and period of recommended supplementation are for pregnant women, the elderly, children, obese people and those working at night.

Key words: vitamin D, deficiency, cardiovascular disease, cancer, autoimmune disease.

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